Aegyptus Antiqua

Cartographer(s): Abraham Ortelius
Date: 1584
Place: Antwerp
Dimensions: 53.3 x 79 cm (21 x 31 in)
Condition Rating: VG

Out of stock

SKU: NL-00482 Category: Tag:

Stunning full color example of Ortelius’s two-sheet map of Egypt.


This gorgeous two-sheet map of Egypt represents a dramatic intersection of art and science: it is both one of the most decorative of Ortelius maps, and what Peter Meurer of the University of Utrecht has rightly described as: “an outstanding example of early scientific research on Egypt.”

A large inset table lists those place names and regions of which the location was not certain. The map is set within a bold border. The excellent aesthetic composition, superb engraving work, and generous size makes this one of the most visually stunning of all Ortelius maps.

This two-sheet version was replaced with a single sheet map of the region in 1595 and Van de Broecke estimates only 975 were published; thus this is quite scarce on the market today.

Cartographic sources: Ortelius own two-sheet map of Ancient Egypt, dedicated to the humanist and medical doctor Scipio Fabio from Bologna, which appeared in 1565, and for which Ortelius mentions as sources Diodorus, Herodotos, Strabo and Plinius (Meurer p. 21-22).

Van de Broecke Ort 219-220 1584G3Add2 in upper right corner (75 copies printed) (last line, left aligned, in Gothic script like most of the text: Strabo/Plinius/Marcellinus und andere deutlich genug.)


Abraham Ortelius

Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) was born in Antwerp to Flemish parents in 1527. After studying Greek, Latin, and mathematics, he and his sister set up shop as book dealers and a ‘painter of maps.’ In his heart, Ortelius was, nevertheless, first and foremost a historian. He believed geography was the ‘eye of history,’ which explains why he collected maps and historical documents with such passion. Ortelius traveled widely in pursuit of his interests, building contacts with mapmakers and literati all over the European continent.

Ortelius reached a turning point in his career in 1564 with the publication of a World Map in eight sheets, of which only a single copy survives. In 1570, he published a comprehensive collection of maps titled Theatrum orbis terrarum (Theatre of the World). The Theatrum is conventionally considered the first modern-style atlas. It was compiled by collecting maps and charts from colleagues across the continent, which Ortelius then had engraved in a uniform size and style. The engraver for most of the maps in Theatrum was none other than the famous Frans Hogenberg, who also served as the main engraver for the 16th-century urban atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum, published with Georg Braun in 1572.

Hogenberg’s re-drawn and standardized maps formed the basis of the first atlas in history (even though it was Mercator who was the first to use the term a few decades later). Unlike many of his contemporaries, Ortelius noted his sources openly and in the first edition, acknowledged no less than eighty-seven different European cartographers. This ‘catalogus auctorum tabularum geographicum‘ is one of the major innovations of his atlas. The list of contributing mapmakers was kept up-to-date for decades after Ortelius’ death. In the first edition of 1570, this list included 87 names, whereas the posthumous edition of 1603 contained no less than 183 names.

While compiled by Abraham Ortelius in the manner described above, the Theatrum was first printed by Gielis Coppens van Diest, an Antwerp printer experienced with cosmographical books. Van Diest was succeeded by his son Anthonis in 1573, who in turn was followed by Gillis van den Rade, who printed the 1575 edition of Ortelius’ atlas. From 1579, Christoffel Plantin took over, and his successors continued to print Theatrum until Ortelius’ heirs sold the copperplates and the publication rights to Jan Baptist Vrients in 1601. In 1612, shortly after Vrients’s death, the copperplates passed to the Moretus brothers.

Condition Description

Joined. Margins trimmed close; some wear from handling. Heavy tape repairs to several tears visible on the verso.


G. Schilder (1987) "Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica" II, Canaletto, p. 8-9.

P.H. Meurer "Ortelius as the Father of Historical Cartography," p. 133-159 in: M. van den Broecke, P. van der Krogt and P.H. Meurer (eds.) "Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas," HES Publishers, 1998.