Marie Tharp & Bruce Charles Heezen

Marie Tharp (1920-2006) and Bruce Charles Heezen (1924-1977) were oceanographers and geologists with Columbia University in New York. During the 1960s and early 70s, they collected enough sonar data to produce the first full view of the Earth’s submarine topography (also known as bathymetry). Tharp in particular is considered a scientific pioneer, in part due to her rise to academic prominence during a time where women struggled to make it in academia. But the real source of her acknowledgement continues to be the comprehensive revisionist theories of how the Earth was formed geologically.

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