Claude R. Conder & Horatio Kitchener

Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, was an Irish-born British Field Marshal and proconsul who gained fame for his imperial campaigns and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War, although he died halfway through it. In 1874, at age 24, the Palestine Exploration Fund tasked Kitchener to carry out a topographical survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria.

Together with fellow Royal Engineer Claude R. Conder, Kitchener surveyed the region between 1874 and 1877, collecting data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as on local flora and fauna.

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