Charles William Wilson (1836-1905) was a British Army officer, archaeologist and geographer. Following several years in the American West, Wilson was transferred to Palestine in 1864 where he became deeply engaged in the formation of the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) and spearheaded the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem, which became a tremendous success. He also conducted excavations on the Temple Mount. In 1868, Wilson joined the Ordnance Survey of the Sinai, helping to produce a series of spectacular and detailed maps of the region. He served as Chairman for the PEF from 1901 until his death.