Calvert Vaux (December 20, 1824 – November 19, 1895) was an English architect, horticulturalist, and landscape designer, who emigrated from London to New York in 1850 in order to partner up with Andrew Jackson Downing, a prominent architect of elite residences based in New York. Seven years later, Vaux created a new partnership with his protégé, Frederick Law Olmsted, to create the winning design for New York City’s Central Park.

Following this initial success, Vaux designed and created dozens of parks across the northeastern United States. Among his most innovative contributions was envisioning the importance of public parks in the wake of America’s massive and rapid industrialization. The solution, Vaux thought, was the integration of man-made components like architecture and infrastructure with the organic harmony of nature. The road to achieving this integration was achieved through a comprehensive and holistic design scheme.